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Subsequently, the nematodes were transferred in buffer consisting of a mixture of methanol and PBT 8. After pretreatment, the nematodes were suspended in phosphate-buffered saline PBS containing 0. Pre-parasitic stage J2s of M. Hybridization signals within the nematode were detected under a light microscope Olympus, Germany. The mycelia of M. The conidia of the transformed M. At least three independent experiments were performed, with four technical replicates for each reaction.

The pepper roots were washed and the number of galls and egg masses were counted 6 weeks after inoculation. At least 30 pepper plants were used for each treatment, and three independent experiments were performed. Transformed T1 seeds were sown on soil and were screened by spraying the herbicide BASTA two weeks later to select for transgenic plants.

The spraying was repeated thrice. Homozygous T3 seeds were collected from T2 lines after a segregation analysis and were used in this research.

Three independent experiments were perfomed. The suppression of cell death elicited by B. The confirmed constructs were then introduced into the B. Nicotiana benthamiana plants were infiltrated with bacterial inocula suspended in a 0. The left half of leaf was injected with B. Cell death was observed within 3 days after infiltration, and leaves were then cleared in ethanol to visualize the HR.


For bacteria population counting, Three 1. Three independent experiments were performed. The preparation of Arabidopsis protoplasts and PEG mediated transfection were performed as previously described All experiment were replicated three times and three independent transformations were used for each replicate. The WT plants were used as negative control. Agrios, G.

Plant pathology. Plant pathology Castagnone-Sereno, P. Diversity and evolution of root-knot nematodes, genus Meloidogyne: new insights from the genomic era. Hunt, D.

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Taxonomy, identification and principal species. Root-knot nematodes 1 , 55—88 Teillet, A. Transcriptional changes of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in response to Arabidopsis thaliana root signals. Abad, P.

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Root-knot nematode parasitism and host response: molecular basis of a sophisticated interaction. Huang, G. Use of solid-phase subtractive hybridization for the identification of parasitism gene candidates from the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. A profile of putative parasitism genes expressed in the esophageal gland cells of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Jaouannet, M. Effectors of root sedentary nematodes target diverse plant cell compartments to manipulate plant functions and promote infection.

Smant, G. Endogenous cellulases in animals: isolation of beta-1,4-endoglucanase genes from two species of plant-parasitic cyst nematodes. Dautova, M. Single pass cDNA sequencing-a powerful tool to analyse gene expression in preparasitic juveniles of the southern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

Nematology 3 , — Journal of nematology 30 , — Engineering broad root-knot resistance in transgenic plants by RNAi silencing of a conserved and essential root-knot nematode parasitism gene.

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A root-knot nematode secretory peptide functions as a ligand for a plant transcription factor. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 19 , — Zhang, L. A Meloidogyne incognita effector is imported into the nucleus and exhibits transcriptional activation activity in planta. Molecular plant pathology 16 , 48—60 Jones, J. The plant immune system. Nature , — Thomma, B. The plant cell 23 , 4—15 Lozano-Torres, J.

Dual disease resistance mediated by the immune receptor Cf-2 in tomato requires a common virulence target of a fungus and a nematode. Mendy, B.

Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase NILR1 is required for induction of innate immunity to parasitic nematodes. Shah, S. Damage-associated responses of the host contribute to defence against cyst nematodes but not root-knot nematodes.

Plant Programmed Cell Death

Journal of experimental botany. Holbein, J. Plant basal resistance to nematodes: an update. Rehman, S. Chronis, D. A ubiquitin carboxyl extension protein secreted from a plant-parasitic nematode Globodera rostochiensis is cleaved in planta to promote plant parasitism. Hewezi, T. Arabidopsis spermidine synthase is targeted by an effector protein of the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii.

Lin, B. A novel nematode effector suppresses plant immunity by activating host reactive oxygen species-scavenging system. Chen, J. A novel Meloidogyne graminicola effector, MgGPP, is secreted into host cells and undergoes glycosylation in concert with proteolysis to suppress plant defenses and promote parasitism. Quentin, M.

Plant parasitic nematode effectors target host defense and nuclear functions to establish feeding cells. Sharma, S. Deployment of the Burkholderia glumae type III secretion system as an efficient tool for translocating pathogen effectors to monocot cells. The Plant Journal 74 , — Po-Wen, C. Priming of the Arabidopsis pattern-triggered immunity response upon infection by necrotrophic Pectobacterium carotovorum bacteria. Oh, M.

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Autophosphorylation of Tyr in the receptor kinase BAK1 plays a role in brassinosteroid signaling and basal defense gene expression. Yoon, J. NbHB1, Nicotiana benthamiana homeobox 1, is a jasmonic acid-dependent positive regulator of pathogen-induced plant cell death. Ozalvo, R. Molecular plant pathology 15 , — The root-knot nematode calreticulin Mi-CRT is a key effector in plant defense suppression.

Niu, J. Msp40 effector of root-knot nematode manipulates plant immunity to facilitate parasitism. Apoplastic venom allergen-like proteins of cyst nematodes modulate the activation of basal plant innate immunity by cell surface receptors. Noon, J. A Plasmodium-like virulence effector of the soybean cyst nematode suppresses plant innate immunity. Hamamouch, N. The interaction of the novel 30C02 cyst nematode effector protein with a plant beta-1,3-endoglucanase may suppress host defence to promote parasitism.

Jan, A. Huang, P. Molecular and physiological characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana Oxidation-related Zinc Finger 2, a plasma membrane protein involved in ABA and salt stress response through the ABI2-mediated signaling pathway. Lee, S. Ciftci-Yilmaz, S. The zinc finger network of plants. Bakhetia, M. Characterisation by RNAi of pioneer genes expressed in the dorsal pharyngeal gland cell of Heterodera glycines and the effects of combinatorial RNAi.

Haegeman, A. Functional roles of effectors of plant-parasitic nematodes. Zheng, X. Functionally redundant RXLR effectors from Phytophthora infestans act at different steps to suppress early flgtriggered immunity. Robert-Seilaniantz, A.