Definition and Examples of Creoles
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The Major Works.
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Here, in a single volume, he traces the development of this theory of emotions and Also in a Rural Jambalaya the meat is browned giving it its distinctive colour, hence the name. It seems our dishes draw inspiration not just from our Creole identities, but from our immediate surroundings. Indeed our very cuisine is a shining monument to the living principle upon which our Creole identities are founded, namely that special and unique assimilation of different ingredients to create a perfect original whole.
Take good old New Orleans. There are at least somewhere between Creole restaurants in The Crescent City, but in the rest of the major cities of the US the number is pitifully low. To enjoy delicious, authentic Creole food served in a restaurant it seems you must first have Creoles! Another feature which specifies us is the Creole passion for music. Historically in New Orleans this centred on the French Opera House which from to was a glittering hub of Creole society with its lavish galas and receptions.
The building itself reflected the Creole taste for sumptuous architecture drenched in an insouciant distinctly aristocratic style of elegance with its graceful curved, balconies and open boxes. On the whole Creoles in those days liked their operas big, ultra-passionate and mostly Italian. Only the occupation of New Orleans by Federal troops in could dampen the bursting cultural life of the City.
The stultifying effect on Creole culture and society following the newly imposed regime of segregation imposed by the invading Northerners cannot be over-emphasised. Their noble efforts though could have formed the basis of a tragic opera in itself! A French opera impresario, Charles Althaija, perished with the doomed passengers.
Despite this seeming ill-omen, the operatic splendour of New Orleans was soon revived. Returning again to the subject of death it can certainly be said that just like its approach to opera, the Creole attitude was far from lukewarm! Without fail when someone died each post in the Creole section of town would bear a black bordered announcement informing the public of the time and place of the funeral. These notices were also placed at St.
Linguistic Simplicity and Complexity
Louis Cathedral on a death notice blackboard. Funeral services were held in the home and the wearing of mourning dress was a rigorous requirement. Throughout the 6 month mourning period it was an unforgiveable offence to wear jewellery, or any clothing with white or colours. Men wore a black crepe band on their hat and often a black armband. Slave or black Creole funeral processions lasted an hour and covered a distance of one-third of a mile. These often took the form of one of the most enduring traditions of New Orleans culture- the Jazz Funeral.
To ensure that this guarantee was honoured resources were pooled from what many have defined as a very early form of insurance. In keeping with this expressive approach to the subject of death Creole cemeteries continue to this day to be major places of Creole life and activity. Indeed New Orleans is home to some of the most picturesque cemeteries in the whole world.
While the simplification of input was supposed to account for creoles' simple grammar, commentators have raised a number of criticisms of this explanation: . Another problem with the FT explanation is its potential circularity. Bloomfield points out that FT is often based on the imitation of the incorrect speech of the non-natives, that is the pidgin.
Types of Creole homes
Therefore, one may be mistaken in assuming that the former gave rise to the latter. The imperfect L2 second language learning hypothesis claims that pidgins are primarily the result of the imperfect L2 learning of the dominant lexifier language by the slaves.
Research on naturalistic L2 processes has revealed a number of features of "interlanguage systems" that are also seen in pidgins and creoles:. Imperfect L2 learning is compatible with other approaches, notably the European dialect origin hypothesis and the universalist models of language transmission. Theories focusing on the substrate, or non-European, languages attribute similarities amongst creoles to the similarities of African substrate languages.
These features are often assumed to be transferred from the substrate language to the creole or to be preserved invariant from the substrate language in the creole through a process of relexification : the substrate language replaces the native lexical items with lexical material from the superstrate language while retaining the native grammatical categories.
Bickerton argues that the number and diversity of African languages and the paucity of a historical record on creole genesis makes determining lexical correspondences a matter of chance.
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Dillard coined the term "cafeteria principle" to refer to the practice of arbitrarily attributing features of creoles to the influence of substrate African languages or assorted substandard dialects of European languages. For a representative debate on this issue, see the contributions to Mufwene ; for a more recent view, Parkvall Because of the sociohistoric similarities amongst many but by no means all of the creoles, the Atlantic slave trade and the plantation system of the European colonies have been emphasized as factors by linguists such as McWhorter One class of creoles might start as pidgins , rudimentary second languages improvised for use between speakers of two or more non-intelligible native languages.
Keith Whinnom in Hymes suggests that pidgins need three languages to form, with one the superstrate being clearly dominant over the others. The lexicon of a pidgin is usually small and drawn from the vocabularies of its speakers, in varying proportions. Morphological details like word inflections , which usually take years to learn, are omitted; the syntax is kept very simple, usually based on strict word order.
In this initial stage, all aspects of the speech — syntax, lexicon, and pronunciation — tend to be quite variable, especially with regard to the speaker's background. If a pidgin manages to be learned by the children of a community as a native language, it may become fixed and acquire a more complex grammar, with fixed phonology, syntax, morphology, and syntactic embedding.
Pidgins can become full languages in only a single generation. The vocabulary, too, will develop to contain more and more items according to a rationale of lexical enrichment. Universalist models stress the intervention of specific general processes during the transmission of language from generation to generation and from speaker to speaker. The process invoked varies: a general tendency towards semantic transparency , first language learning driven by universal process, or general process of discourse organization.
The main universalist theory is still Bickerton's language bioprogram theory , proposed in the s. Around them, they only heard pidgins spoken, without enough structure to function as natural languages ; and the children used their own innate linguistic capacities to transform the pidgin input into a full-fledged language.
The alleged common features of all creoles would then be the consequence of those innate abilities being universal. The last decade has seen the emergence of some new questions about the nature of creoles: in particular, the question of how complex creoles are and the question of whether creoles are indeed "exceptional" languages. Some features that distinguish creole languages from noncreoles have been proposed by Bickerton,  for example. John McWhorter  has proposed the following list of features to indicate a creole prototype :.
McWhorter hypothesizes that these three properties exactly characterize a creole. However, the creole prototype hypothesis has been disputed:. Building up on this discussion, McWhorter proposed that "the world's simplest grammars are Creole grammars", claiming that every noncreole language's grammar is at least as complex as any creole language's grammar.
The lack of progress made in defining creoles in terms of their morphology and syntax has led scholars such as Robert Chaudenson , Salikoko Mufwene , Michel DeGraff , and Henri Wittmann to question the value of creole as a typological class; they argue that creoles are structurally no different from any other language, and that creole is a sociohistoric concept — not a linguistic one — encompassing displaced populations and slavery. Gradualists question the abnormal transmission of languages in a creole setting and argue that the processes which created today's creole languages are no different from universal patterns of language change.
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Given these objections to creole as a concept, DeGraff and others question the idea that creoles are exceptional in any meaningful way. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has an unclear citation style. The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of citation and footnoting. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. ISO crp redirects here, but that language code incorporates pidgins as well as creoles.
For the computer markup language, see Creole markup. Further information: Universal grammar. This section may be too technical for most readers to understand. Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-experts , without removing the technical details.